Alopecia areata is a condition in which hair is falling out from hair follicales in small patches, which is unnoticeable, These patches noticeable only when connected. The condition develops when the immune system attacks the hair follicles, resulting in hair loss.
Causes of alopecia areata


Alopecia areata is considered to be an Autoimmune condition.
However, it most commonly bseen in people who have a family history of autoimmune conditions. That is why some scientists suspect that genetics may contribute to the phenomenon of alopecia areata.They also believe that certain factors are there in environment which trigger alopecia areata in people who are genetically predisposed to it.

Symptoms of alopecia areata
• Hair loss, hair falls out in small patches from the scalp. These patches are often several centimeters or less.
• Hair loss might also occur on other parts of body like face, eyebrows, eyelashes, and beard, as well as other parts of the body.
• clumps of hair fall pillow or in the shower.
Types


Alopecia areata (patchy) :The main characteristic of alopecia areata is one or more coin-sized patches of hair loss on body mainly on scalp and beard.
Alopecia totalis : Alopecia totalis is the condition when hair loss occur on entire scalp. 100% hair loss on the scalp
Alopecia universalis : In addition to hair lose on the scalp, people with this type of alopecia also lose hair on the face — eyebrows and eyelashes, moreover people lose whole body hair, including chest, back, and pubic hair.
Diffuse alopecia areata : Diffuse alopecia areata looks like female- or male pattern hair loss.
Ophiasis alopecia : Ophiasis alopecia is characterized by the hair loss at the circumference of the head and spares the sides and back of the head.
Treatment
Medical treatments
Topical agents
• Anthralin ( Dritho-Scalp) is a drug used to regrow hair ,but it is irritates the skin.
• Corticosteroid creams such as Clobetasol (Impoyz), work by decreasing inflammation in the hair follicle.
• Minoxidil (Rogaine): It’s relatively safe, but it take a year to show results.
Injections
Steroid injections are a common choice for alopecia areata. This treatment has to be repeated every one to two months.
Oral treatments
Cortisone tablets are sometimes used for extensive alopecia.
Oral Immunosupressent: like methotrexate and cyclosporine, can be given, but they can’t be used for a long period of time due to the risk of side effects, such as hypertension, liver and kindey failure, serious infections and a types of cancers.
Light therapy
Also known as photo chemotherapy or phototherapy. It’s a type of radiation treatment that uses a combination of an oral medication called psoralens and UV light.
Natural treatment
Some people use alternative therapies to treat alopecia areata:
• Aromatherapy
• Acupuncture
• microneedling
• Probiotics
• scalp massage
• Aloe vera drinks and topical gels
• Onion juice rubbed onto the scalp
• Low – level laser therapy
• vitamins, like Zinc and Biotin
• essential oils like tea tree, lavender, rosemary and peppermint
• other oils, like olive. coconut, caster, and jojoba
• herbal supplements, such as ginseng, green tea, Chinese hibiscus, and saw palmetto
Ayurveda Management-
A few ways of treatment to reduce hair fall and stimulate hair growth:

  1. Pitta Pacification: This therapy removes toxins from the body.
  2. Ayurvedic Oil Application: Jasminum grandifolium induced medicated herbal hair oil is highly effective for treating baldness.
  3. panchkarma Therapy: Panchakarma is defined as five (pancha) remedies (karma) which involve ayurvedic measures to detoxify the body. Panchakarma therapy includes Shirodhara (head massage with medicated oil) and Ksheera Vasthi, which contain medicated enema.
  4. Nasya: This therapy is characterized by the ayurvedic intake of medication through your nasal cavity which then eliminates the impurities from there.
  5. Ayurvedic Diet: Ayurvedic diet is considered an important method for treatment of alopecia.

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